George S. & Stella M. Knight Essay Contest

The George S. & Stella M. Knight Essay Contest


NASSP Logo 2013-2014

The National Association of Secondary School Principals has placed this program on the NASSP National Advisory List of Contests and Activities for 2013-2014.

 

 

 

 


 

The George S. and Stella M. Knight Essay Contest was originally established and named in honor of President Calvin Coolidge, who won a local SAR essay contest while a student at Amherst. The contest was reestablished in 1988 by Compatriot McCarthy DeMere.  In 1995, the contest was renamed the George S. and Stella M. Knight Essay Contest in honor of their generous gift to the SAR to support this contest. The program is designed to give freshman, sophomore, junior and senior students an opportunity to explore events that shaped American history.

Conducted at the Chapter, State Society and National Society levels, the students must submit an original essay with topics based on original research and deal with an event, person, philosophy or ideal associated with the American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, or the framing of the United States Constitution.


 

A list of our Former National Winners Can be found here.


 

An example Essay can be found here.

Knight Essay Contest Rules


NASSP Logo 2010 - 2011The National Association of Secondary School Principals has placed this program on the NASSP National Advisory List of Contests and Activities for 2013-2014.

 

 


 

CONTEST RULES

  1. This contest is open to all students who are United States citizens or legal aliens.  Contestants shall be attending public, parochial, or private high schools (including accredited home schools).   Contestants shall be in the Freshman, sophomore, junior or senior grade of study during the contest year.  The contest is conducted in three phases:   local (Chapter), state (State Society) and National.   The contest must be entered through a Chapter of the Sons of the American Revolution near the student's residence.   In some cases, the contest may be entered at the State level (if the State does not have chapters or the chapters are not participating). Only one entry per student is permitted per contest year. If the State does not participate, then the essay may be submitted to the At Large judge listed on our website. The first place National winner is prohibited from participating in following years' contests.


The local date varies by location, so please check the deadline dates with your local contact as listed on the Contacts page.  Click here for CONTEST CONTACTS to locate your local contact and to request your local deadline information.

 

All submissions must be in the hands of the Chapter Knight Essay Chairmen or, in the case where the State Society does not participate, the At Large Judge Dr. Robert E. Danneman (bd3133atembarqmail [dot] com) by December 31st.
 
All Chapters must have their winning essays in the hands of their State Chairmen by the end of January.
 
State Chairmen should have their winning essays e-mailed to the National Chairman by the end of February, if not before.
 
E-mail Submissions, for the sake of time are preferred. U.S. mail within the time constraints are acceptable.
 
The National Chairman will notify all submitters by early April whether their entry was among the finalists. The actual winner will be informed in order to be able to attend the Congress and read their essay at the Youth Luncheon. The winning essay will be published in the SAR Magazine.
  1. The contest is for an original researched and proven topic written in English.  The topic of the essay shall deal with:  an event, person, philosophy, or ideal associated with the American Revolution, the Declaration of Independence, or the framing of the United States ConstitutionDuring the 2013-14 and 2014-15 contest years only, to commemorate the 800th anniversary of Magna Carta, contestants may also choose a topic that relates to Magna Carta and its influence on the Revolution or one or more of the Founding Fathers.  Students must source at least five (5) references with the minimum of three being published book sources to allow for verification of sources if necessary.  References from Encyclopedias or Internet sites will be accepted, but are not considered as part of the three published book sources.   If there are no book sources (i.e. all are from encyclopedias or internet sources) the essay will be disqualified.
  2. The essay must have four parts: A) title page, B) essay pages, C) bibliography (works cited), and D) contestant's biography. The title page, bibliography and contestant's biography must be listed on separate pages and no reference to the contestant's name or information can be part of the Essay pages or Bibliography. Please follow these rules exactly. Essays that do not conform to the rules may be immediately disqualified.
    1. The title page must include the title of the essay, contestant's name, address, telephone number, and email address (if available). In addition, the title page must include the name, address, and telephone number of the high school in which the contestant is enrolled, and the contestant's grade level.
    2. The essay must have a minimum of 800 words and not exceed 1,200 words (excluding title page, footnotes, bibliography page, and biography page). (Word counts based on a word processor are acceptable). The First page of the Essay must include the title of the essay. (No contestant information must appear on these pages as they are separated and distributed to the judges for grading to prevent possible grading bias.) The essay must be typed double-spaced on white bond paper. No bindings or special covers are needed. Graphics are not permitted. An original copy of the essay must be submitted. Poor quality copies will not be accepted. Plagiarism will be grounds for immediate disqualification.
    3. The essay and bibliography must be documented in accordance with the Modern Language Association publication, MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (see www.mla.org) or Kate L. Turabian's publication, A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations.
    4. The contestant's biography is limited to one page. Topics to be included in the biography are academic awards and achievements, school activities, community activities, and plans for college.
  3. Entries must be submitted to the Chapter/State deadline (usually by December 31 each year) (however some states have different deadlines therefore please contact the Chapter or State chairman to confirm the deadline and/or see the exceptions listed on our States contact webpage). The students must send their essay to the chapter or state chairman appropriate for their state that are listed on the States Contact page of our NSSAR Essay Website here.

NOTE:

Some Society or Chapter chairmen encourage the electronic submission of the essay.  When electronic submission is permitted, please confirm with the Society or Chapter what format the file should be in such as Microsoft Word (.doc or .docx.), Rich Text Format (.rtf), or Portable Document Format (.pdf).

  1. Essays which meet the criteria in Rules 1-3 above will be accepted and judged equally on the following criteria:
    1. Historical accuracy
    2. Clarity of thought
    3. Organization and proven topic
    4. Grammar and spelling
    5. Documentation
  2. AWARDS: State and Chapter prizes vary. Please contact specific chairmen for more information.

National Society:

First place: $2,000; a winning recognition certificate and medal; $500 toward travel expenses and one night hotel stay for the winner and a chaperone at the SAR Annual Congress.

Second Place: $1,000

Third Place: $ 500

  1. The winning essay of the national contest will be submitted for publication in The SAR Magazine. Participants in this contest agree that their essay may be published in The SAR Magazine and on the NSSAR Knight Essay Contest webpage. Winning essay participants, on all levels, must supply a social security number or alien identification/green card number in order to receive their award.

  2. Participants in this contest agree that the interpretation of rules and decisions of the NSSAR and its judges must govern without reservation and that the decision of the Judges is final.  
     

    Questions regarding specific rules may be directed to the National Chairman.
    Michael J. Elston, Esq.
    P.O. Box 336
    Lorton VA 22199-0336
    E-mail:  elston [dot] saratgmail [dot] com

The George S. & Stella M. Knight Essay Contacts

The George S. & Stella M. Knight
Essay Contacts in Our State Societies


If you cannot locate a Chapter of the National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution in your area, the list below identifies a contact for the contest by State.

If the list does not indicate Chapter level participation please mail the essay directly to the State Contact listed.

All submissions must be in the hands of the Chapter Knight Essay Chairmen or, in the case where the State Society does not participate, the At Large Judge Dr. Robert E. Danneman by December 31st.

All Chapters must have their winning Knight Essay in the hands of the State Knight Essay Chairman by the end of February 1st.

 
All State Knight Essay Chairmen must have their winning Knight Essay in the hands of the National Society Chairman by March 1st. Essays received after the deadlines will be regretfully disqualified.

To locate a Chapter in your area, please send a letter, indicating the city and state or country where you reside with a self addressed [applicant's home address in top left corner], stamped [stamps in upper right corner please], business size (Number 10) envelope [self-adhesive, please - we sometimes receive 1000 a month!] enclosed, to the appropriate address in the listing of State Society contacts below.

Please note:  requests for information that do not include the self addressed, stamped envelope will not be answered.

For those listings where an E-mail contact is given, E-mail may be used to request local Chapter information instead of the letter correspondence.


The following links will Jump you to that part of the list:

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N |

O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | International

 

State
Contact
Notes
AL
Alabama
Dr. Richard J. Erickson 
2220 Lizmar Ln
Montgomery, AL 36106.   
E-mail: richardjericksonatgmail [dot] com
Entries must be postmarked prior to
15 January
AK

Alaska

Send to the At Large Judge
Dr. Robert Earl Danneman
4275 NE 19th Ave
Ocala FL 34479-3187
 
State does not participate. Contestants submit to the At Large Judge: Dr. Danneman

Entries must be postmarked prior to
31 December
AR
Arkansas

Jimmie D. Weber
113 Twisted Oaks Ct
Hot Springs, AR 71913
Phone: (501) 262-0725
E-mail: jimmymacatflash [dot] net

Conducts contest at Chapter level

Entries must be postmarked prior to

31 December
AZ
Arizona

Bob B. Alling, II
5317 N Monte Vista Dr
Paradise Valley, AZ 85253-7066
Phone: (602) 944-8811
E-mail: rballingIIataol [dot] com

Conducts contest at State level

Entries must be postmarked prior to

31 December
CA
California
Dr. M. Kent Gregory
3822 Denwood Ave
Los Alamitos, CA 90720
E-mail: drkentgregoryatearthlink [dot] net
Conducts contest at Chapter level

Entries must be postmarked prior to
31 December
CO
Colorado
Send to the At Large Judge
Dr. Robert Earl Danneman
4275 NE 19th Ave
Ocala FL 34479-3187
State does not participate. Contestants submit to the At Large Judge Dr. Danneman

Entries must be postmarked prior to

31 December
CT
Connecticut

Damien Cregeau
 Phone: (203)-648-1730
E-mail: damien_cregeauathotmail [dot] com

Conducts contest at Chapter level

Entries must be postmarked prior to

31 December
DE
Delaware
David Schrader, PhD.
Phone: (302) 266-0356
E-mail: dschradeatudel [dot] edu
Entries must be postmarked prior to
31 December
DC
District of Columbia
Robert Pollock
E-mail: r [dot] d [dot] pollockatatt [dot] net
Conducts contest at State level

Entries must be postmarked prior to
31 December

Further information on website
FL]
Florida
John M. Stewart
1121 32nd Ave North,
St. Petersburg, Fl. 33704
Phone: (561) 313-4444
E-mail: 1965uvaatgmail [dot] com
Conducts contest at State level
Entries must be postmarked prior to
31 January
Further information on website:
http://www.flssar.org
GA
Georgia
Hall Martin
4448 Sandhurst Pl
Flowery Branch, GA 30542
Phone: (770) 503-0913
E-mail: hallmart10atbellsouth [dot] net
Conducts contest at Chapter level

Entries must be postmarked prior to
18 January

Deadline may vary by Chapter
Visit State Website for further information.
HI
Hawaii
Send to the At Large Judge
Dr. Robert Earl Danneman
4275 NE 19th Ave
Ocala FL 34479-3187
State does not participate. Contestants submit to the At Large Judge Dr. Danneman

Entries must be postmarked prior to
31 December
IA
Iowa
David A. Shannon
1105 S. 5th Ave W
Newton IA 50208-3512
Phone: (641) 792-1310
E-mail: dshann37atiowatelecom [dot] net
Conducts contest at State level

Entries must be postmarked prior to

31 December
ID
Idaho
Send to the At Large Judge
Dr. Robert Earl Danneman
4275 NE 19th Ave
Ocala FL 34479-3187
State does not participate. Contestants submit to the At Large Judge Dr. Danneman

Entries must be postmarked prior to

31 December
IL
Illinois

Chairman, Franz Herder
4223 Sunnyside
Brookfield, IL 60513
Phone: (708)387-7805
E-mail: fherderatsbcglobal [dot] net

Conducts contest at State level

Entries must be postmarked prior to

15 February
IN
Indiana
Douglas Wilson
509 S. Sale St
Ellettsville, IN  47429
Conducts contest at Chapter level

Entries must be postmarked prior to

31 December
 KS
Kansas
Bobbie Arthur Hulse 
508 E Kansas Ave
McPherson, KS 67460
620-241-6402
healthyaltmcatcox [dot] net
Conducts contest at Chapter level

Entries must be postmarked prior to

31 December
KY
Kentucky

John C. Barnett
3107 Limerick Ln
Louisville, KY 40242-2917
E-mail: jace760atyahoo [dot] com

Conducts contest at Chapter level

Entries must be postmarked prior to

31 December
 LA
Louisiana

Tony L. Vets
504 Oak St
Colfax, LA 71417
E-mail: tonyvetsatbellsouth [dot] net

Conducts contest at State level, not all Chapters participate

Entries must be postmarked prior to

31 December
 MA
Massachusett
s
Michael E. Fishbein, President
Massachusetts Society
Sons of the American Revolution
Post Office Box 17
Mendon, MA 01756
 
Conducts contest at State level

Entries must be postmarked prior to

31 December
MD
Maryland
C. Louis Raborg Jr. President MDSSAR
Knight Essay Chairman MDSSAR
714 Chestnut Hill Rd
Forest Hill, MD 21050
E-mail: raborg1989atverizon [dot] net
Conducts contest at Chapter level

Entries must be postmarked prior to

31 December
ME
Maine

Wayne Mallar
103 Essex St
Bangor, ME 04401-5301
E-mail: Essex103ataol [dot] com

Conducts contest at State level

Entries must be postmarked prior to
31 December
MI
Michigan
William G Vette
11389 Oakwood Dr.
Jerome, MI 49249-9804
vwk1ataol [dot] com
Conducts contest at State level

Entries must be postmarked prior to
31 December
MN
Minnesota
Send to the At Large Judge
Dr. Robert Earl Danneman
4275 NE 19th Ave
Ocala FL 34479-3187
State does not participate. Contestants submit to the At Large Judge Dr. Danneman

Entries must be postmarked prior to

31 December
MO
Missouri
Dale Schmidt
5624 Bradford Ct
Jefferson City, MO  65109
E-mail: schmidtda17atembarqmail [dot] com
Conducts contest at Chapter level

Entries must be postmarked prior to
31 December
MS
Mississippi
Knight Essay Contest Committee
Henry Lee Ashcraft
P.O. Box 444
Horn Lake, MS 38637
Phone: (662) 393-0878
Conducts contest at Chapter level
Entries must be postmarked prior to
31 December
MT
Montana
Send to the At Large Judge
Dr. Robert Earl Danneman
4275 NE 19th Ave
Ocala FL 34479-3187
State does not participate. Contestants submit to the At Large Judge Dr. Danneman

Entries must be postmarked prior to

31 December
 NC
North Carolina
Stephen Morris
4653 Forest Highland Drive
Raleigh, North Carolina 27604
email: stephenmorris-saratnc [dot] rr [dot] com
Tel: 919-210-9005
Conducts contest at State level

Entries must be postmarked prior to
31 December
ND
North Dakota
Send to the At Large Judge
Dr. Robert Earl Danneman
4275 NE 19th Ave
Ocala FL 34479-3187
State does not participate. Contestants submit to the At Large Judge Dr. Danneman

Entries must be postmarked prior to

31 December
NE
Nebraska

Send to the At Large Judge
Dr. Robert Earl Danneman
4275 NE 19th Ave
Ocala FL 34479-3187

State does not participate. Contestants submit to the At Large Judge Dr. Danneman

Entries must be postmarked prior to

31 December
NH
New Hampshire

Send to the At Large Judge

Dr. Robert Earl Danneman
4275 NE 19th Ave
Ocala FL 34479-3187
State does not participate. Contestants submit to the At Large Judge Dr. Danneman

Entries must be postmarked prior to

31 December
NJ
New Jersey

Send to the At Large Judge

Dr. Robert Earl Danneman
4275 NE 19th Ave
Ocala FL 34479-3187
State does not participate. Contestants submit to the At Large Judge Dr. Danneman

Entries must be postmarked prior to

31 December
NM
New Mexico

Ray Alexander
E-mail: anniealexatearthlink [dot] net

Conducts contest at State level

Entries must be postmarked prior to Thursday

15 February
NV
Nevada
Send to the At Large Judge
Dr. Robert Earl Danneman
4275 NE 19th Ave
Ocala FL 34479-3187
State does not participate. Contestants submit to the At Large Judge: Dr. Danneman

Entries must be postmarked prior to
31 December
NY
New York
Knight Essay Contest Committee
Raynor B. Duncombe, Esq.
190 Main St
Middleburgh, NY 12122-6305
E-mail: workaholic45work2atyahoo [dot] com
Entries must be postmarked prior to
26 December
 OH
Ohio

Larry R. Perkins
101 Curtis Ln
St. Clairsville, OH 43950-1154
E-mail: perkins6275atsbcglobal [dot] net

Conducts contest at Chapter level

Entries must be postmarked prior to

31 December
OK
Oklahoma

Pendleton Woods
541 31st St
Oklahoma, City, OK 73118-7334

Conducts contest at State level

Entries must be postmarked prior to

31 December
OR
Oregon
Send to the At Large Judge
Dr. Robert Earl Danneman
4275 NE 19th Ave
Ocala FL 34479-3187
State does not participate. Contestants submit to the At Large Judge Dr. Danneman

Entries must be postmarked prior to

31 December
 PA
Pennsylvania

Watson B. Lupher
1031 Scott Ave
Jeannette, PA 15644-1657
Phone: (724) 527-5917
E-mail: lupherwbatmsn [dot] com

Conducts contest at Chapter level

Entries must be postmarked prior to

31 December
RI
Rhode Island
Send to the At Large Judge
Dr. Robert Earl Danneman
4275 NE 19th Ave
Ocala FL 34479-3187
State does not participate. Contestants submit to the At Large Judge Dr. Danneman

Entries must be postmarked prior to

31 December
 SC
South Carolina

Glenn Ohanesian
SCSSAR Knight Essay Committee
P.O. Box 2433
Myrtle Beach, SC 29578-2433
Phone: (843) 626-7193
E-mail:OhanesianLawFirmatcs [dot] com

Conducts contest at State level

Entries must be postmarked prior to

31 December
SD
South Dakota
Send to the At Large Judge
Dr. Robert Earl Danneman
4275 NE 19th Ave
Ocala FL 34479-3187
State does not participate. Contestants submit to the At Large Judge Dr. Danneman

Entries must be postmarked prior to

31 December
 TN
Tennessee
Dr. George E. Pesely
334 Harold Dr.
Clarksville, TN 37040
(931) 648-9224
e-mail:  peselygatapsu [dot] edu
Conducts contest at Chapter level

Entries must be postmarked prior to

31 December
TX
Texas

Joe A. Rice

PO Box 525

Manvel, TX 77578

proceduredocatgmail [dot] com

Conducts contest at Chapter level

Entries must be postmarked prior to

31 December
 UT
Utah
Send to the At Large Judge
Dr. Robert Earl Danneman
4275 NE 19th Ave
Ocala FL 34479-3187
State does not participate. Contestants submit to the At Large Judge Dr. Danneman

Entries must be postmarked prior to

31 December
 VT
Vermont
Cpt Zachariah LaVerne Fike US Army
1st Vice-President, VTSSAR 
26 Decatur St
Burlington, VT 05401
Phone: (315) 523-3609
E-mail: crossfitnationathotmail [dot] com
Entries must be postmarked prior to
31 December
VA
Virginia
Scott A. Wagoner
P. O. Box 75
Occoquan, VA 22125
E-mail: swagoneratX4-LLC [dot] com
Conducts contest at Chapter level

Entries must be postmarked prior to

31 December
 WA
Washington
Gale Palmer
39322 Doerschlag Rd
Sprague, WA 99032-9649 
Phone: (509) 257-2634
 E-mail: palmerogro69ataol [dot] com
Conducts contest at State level

Entries must be postmarked prior to
5 December
WV
West Virginia

Tom Galloway
PO Box 697
Huntington, WV 25711-0697
E-mail: tgallowayatMARSHALL [dot] EDU

Conducts contest at State level

Entries must be postmarked prior to
31 December
WI
Wisconsin

Knight Essay Contest Committee
LTC Thomas Pelham Curtis, II
N56W21796 Silver Spring Dr
Menomonee Falls, WI 53051-5331
Phone: (262)703-0807
E-mail: thebruceatexecpc [dot] com

Entries must be postmarked prior to
31 December 
WY
Wyoming
Send to the At Large Judge
Dr. Robert Earl Danneman
4275 NE 19th Ave
Ocala FL 34479-3187
Conducts contest at State level

Entries must be postmarked prior to

31 December
Guilford Courthouse Flag
Int'l Society
Send to the At Large Judge
Dr. Robert Earl Danneman
4275 NE 19th Ave
Ocala FL 34479-3187
RESIDENCE OUTSIDE THE UNITED STATES (THIS INCLUDES THE US TERRITORIES)

Entries must be postmarked prior to

31 December
State
Contact
 

 

 

The George S. & Stella M. Knight Essay Contest Example

2001-2002 First Place Essay

by
NATIONAL WINNER
Ms. Stephanie Condon

 

Withstanding the Test of Time


Sponsored by: the California Society



Withstanding the Test of Time.

According to legend, as the exulted Benjamin Franklin stepped out of the last session of the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in September of 1787, a curious woman queried, "What kind of government have you given us, Dr. Franklin?"  Franklin answered, "A Republic, Madam, if you can keep it."1  Remarkably, over 200 years later, the United States has kept its constitution, and the republic for which it was created has flourished.  While fledgling democracies across the continents have modeled the frameworks of their governments after the U.S. Constitution, America's system of democracy remains spectacularly unique and successful, largely due to its constitution.  The framers of the Constitution created an adaptable instrument of government which withstands the test of time through a system of checks and balances and separation of powers.

At the Constitutional Convention, the framers set out to develop a form of government stronger than a confederation; it could not be unitary though, otherwise the states would not ratify it.  They borrowed ideas from both of these forms of government to form a federal republic.  Once federalism was decided upon to unify the states without constraining them, the next step in developing a lasting constitution was creating a separation of powers.   James Madison wrote in The Federalist, No. 47, "No political truth is certainly of greater intrinsic value, or is stamped with the authority of more enlightened patrons of liberty, than that ... the accumulation of all powers, legislative, executive, and judiciary, in the same hands ... may justly be pronounced the very definition of tyranny."2  The framers ingeniously wove into the Constitution three ways to ensure a clear separation of powers among the three branches of government.   First, the leaders in the different branches come to power in different ways; the president is elected through a national election, the congressmen are elected on a state level, and the federal judges are appointed to their positions.   Next, the bureaucracy is appointed by the president but only by the consent of the Senate.  Also, each power serves for a different amount of time.   This keeps the powers separate by ensuring that a majority party can only take control over part of the government at one time.3  For instance, the Republicans controlled the House of Representatives after the election in 1994, but President Clinton would represent the Democrats in the executive branch for at least two more years.  By separating powers between the states and the federal government, and by separating the federal powers among three equal and independent branches of government, the framers of the Constitution laid the foundations of a durable democracy.

The framers further developed this foundation of democracy through a system of checks and balances.  They were aware that "the great security against a gradual concentration of the several powers in the same department consists in giving to those who administer each department the necessary constitutional means and personal motives to resist encroachments of the others ... Ambition must be made to counteract ambition."4  Though the legislative branch creates laws, it is up to the executive branch to enforce them and the judicial branch to interpret them.

The judicial branch's ability to interpret the law is essential to the adaptable nature of the Constitution.  The Supreme Court case of Marbury vs. Madison (1803), which took place during the influential Marshall Court, established the constitutional principle of judicial review.5   It was asserted that the Court may strike down state as well as federal laws and that the Constitution is the supreme law of the land.  This case was significant because judicial review gives the right to interpret the Constitution to the branch of government which is the most unaffected by political parties or public opinion.   The Court also is most fit for this job because they have the best knowledge of the law.  Judicial review is still an important part of the way the United States democracy works, as demonstrated by the 2000 presidential elections.   Though the correct course of action regarding the slate of electoral voters to be chosen for the state of Florida was widely disputed, the final outcome depended on a ruling by the Supreme Court.  Many people believe that the "...epoch of the election of the President of the United States may be considered as a crisis in the affairs of the nation"6 yet even this year's election was far from a crisis because of the stability of the Constitution.  The Constitution also remains adaptable to society because of the option of adding an amendment.   During the Revolutionary period, not all were fans of the proposed Constitution.   The Antifederalists" most telling criticism of the Constitution was its failure to include a bill of rights.7  The Bill of Rights was eventually added to the Constitution and are the first ten amendments.  As proof of the constant relevance of the Constitution in American society, seventeen amendments have since been added.

Thomas Paine declared that "...government even in its best state is but a necessary evil; in its worst state an intolerable one..."8 By these standards, the United States government is far from the worst possible state, as the Constitution has lasted throughout the federal government's entire existence.  The United States Constitution is assuredly vital to the success of this country and will always remain so.

1 James MacGregor Burns, Thomas E. Cronin, David B. Magleby, J.W. Peltason, Government by the People (Upper Saddle River, 1998)
2 James Madison, The Federalist, No. 47
3 James MacGregor Burns, Thomas E. Cronin, David B. Magleby, J.W. Peltason, Government by the People (Upper Saddle River, 1998)
4 James Madison, The Federalist, No. 51
5 James MacGregor Burns, Thomas E. Cronin, David B. Magleby, J.W. Peltason, Government by the People (Upper Saddle River, 1998)
6 AIexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America (New York, 1972)
7 Herbert J. Storing, ed. The Anti-Federalist writing by the Opponents of the Constitution (Chicago, 1985)
8 Thomas Paine, Common Sense (London, 1976)

Works Cited

1. James MacGregor Burns, Thomas E. Cronin, David B. Magleby, J.W. Peltason, Government by the People (Upper Saddle River, 1998)
2. James Madison, The Federalist, No. 47
3. James Madison, The Federalist, No. 51
4. Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America (New York, 1972)
5. Herbert J. Storing, ed. The Anti-Federalist writing by the Opponents of the Constitution (Chicago, 1985)
6. Thomas Paine, Common Sense (London, 1976)